19 Dec 2020 Understanding The Paris Climate Agreement
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To limit the increase in temperature, countries have submitted “nationally determined contributions” that indicate the extent to which they will reduce their emissions and what measures they will take to do so, but these are not legally binding. The New York Times said countries are legally bound by the agreement, but monitor and report on their emissions and progress and step up efforts to reduce emissions in the future. The Washington Post said the deal would defy climate deniers, “not only to explain why they reject science, but also why they would damage the image of the United States in the world by trying to slow down the progress that so many countries are making.” It is rare that there is a consensus among almost all nations on a single subject. But with the Paris agreement, world leaders agreed that climate change was driven by human behaviour, that it was a threat to the environment and to humanity as a whole, and that global action was needed to stop it. In addition, a clear framework has been put in place for all countries to make commitments to reduce emissions and strengthen these measures over time. Here are some key reasons why this agreement is so important: apart from formal intergovernmental negotiations, countries, cities and regions, businesses and civil society members around the world are taking steps to accelerate cooperative action in support of the Paris Agreement as part of the Global Climate Agenda. Climate change – which is due to human diseases such as the burning of fossil fuels – has a long and well-documented list of effects, including sea level rise, more intense and frequent extreme weather events, crop losses, epidemics and many other social problems that these factors cause. In addition to efforts to reduce the causes of climate change – the fight against climate change – there has been a great deal of effort in the United States and around the world to plan and respond to the effects of climate change, known as adaptation to climate change. The Paris Agreement is the first legally binding universal global agreement on climate change adopted at the Paris Climate Change Conference (COP21) in December 2015. Under the terms of the agreement, the United States will not be able to withdraw until November 4, 2020, the day after the next presidential election.

This could make climate change a campaign theme for the future. In 1992, President George H.W. Bush joined 107 other heads of state at the Rio Earth Summit in Brazil to adopt a series of environmental agreements, including the UNFCCC framework, which is still in force today. The international treaty aims to prevent dangerous human intervention in the planet`s climate systems in the long term. The pact does not set limits on greenhouse gas emissions from individual countries and does not contain enforcement mechanisms, but establishes a framework for international negotiations on future agreements or protocols to set binding emissions targets. Participating countries meet annually at a Conference of the Parties (COP) to assess their progress and continue discussions on how best to combat climate change. Indeed, research shows that the cost of climate activity far outweighs the cost of reducing carbon pollution. A recent study suggests that if the United States does not meet its climate targets in Paris, it could cost the economy up to $6 trillion in the coming decades. A lack of compliance with the NPNs currently foreseen in the agreement could reduce global GDP by more than 25% by the end of the century. Meanwhile, another study estimates that achieving – or even exceeding – the Paris targets by investing in infrastructure in clean energy and energy efficiency could have great benefits globally – about $19 trillion.

From 30 November to 11 December 2015, France received representatives from 196 countries at the end of the United Nations Conference

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